One potentially rich area for collaboration is that between that emerging group of professionals, who irrespective of training or title, have as their number one priority a focus on management of the knowledge resource in organisations and the more established and functionally embedded group of HRM professionals.
The rise of the knowledge economy has seen a proliferation of information and communication technologies, coupled with greater organisational complexity, the growth of virtual and global organisations and rapid change.
This in turn requires drastic change within HRM to respond to changing demands of the knowledge economy. Traditional HRM functioned under narrow operational boundaries; in the knowledge economy the role of HRM needs to expand, looking both within and outside the organisation. The traditional focus on managing people has been broadened to managing organisational capabilities, managing relationships and managing learning and knowledge Choi , The emphasis on discrete HRM practices is also broadening to a focus on developing themes and creating environments conducive to learning, as well as to the acquisition, sharing and dissemination of knowledge within organisations.
The political and cultural surroundings are known from the analysis of knowledge culture because effective KM cannot take place without extensive behavioral, cultural, and organizational change Davenport and Prusak , A common element in many KM research frameworks and models included in the models discussed above is organizational culture.
For the most part, it is assumed that technology plays a key role in the processes involved in KM. The last of these perspectives highlights the importance of organizational culture in the KM process. Not all KM processes require high investment in technology. More importantly, successful use of the technology is often dependent on the incorporation of KM behavior into the organizational culture. The KMS is visualized by the triangle Figure 3. The knowledge tasks are organized in acquisition and deployment processes required for the management of knowledge.
A definition of the term KMS and a subsequent development of architectures for KMS have to stress these characteristics. Consequently, a KMS is defined as a comprehensive ICT platform for collaboration and knowledge sharing with advanced services built on top that are contextualized, integrated on the basis of a shared ontology and personalized for participants networked in communities.
Role Of Information Technology. A business needs to develop its own requirements for KM before engaging IT for assistance. Another aspect of gathering business needs is developing a partnership with the IT organization. To accomplish this involves defining the role of IT in developing a KM system. Duffy sees ITas managing the storage and access of documents. IT usually maintains the databases, hardware and software access points, survivability of information. However, any KM project can fail when IT techies see only the technical side.
They must be aware and educated in knowledge management processes to gain a better appreciation. The process of creation, acquirement, and utilization of knowledge is posited to improve organizational performance Laudon and Laudon , Maintaining Knowledge Management. We firmly believe this must be made a strategic agenda in the near future because without it, the future of knowledge management systems may very well be in jeopardy. For the last few years, we have focused on the idea of attracting users to the knowledge management system; now, we must ensure that we maintain the system so that they will continue to use them and not runaway.
The Knowledge Management Performance Scorecard adapts the balanced scorecard approach Kaplan and Norton, in which an organisation measures its performance in four key result areas:. Performance of KM can also be measured by the level of improvement in organizational efficiency or effectiveness Detert and Schroeder, ; Ostroff and Schmitt, This approach measures improved ability to innovate, advanced coordination of efforts, rapid commercialization of new products, responsiveness to market change or exceptional surprise, effective organizational development, and so forth.
Knowledge-focused activities permeate any knowledge-enabled organization; in other words, implementing KM involves, among other aspects, setting up processes and systems to enable these activities. From an implementation view of process design managers, the knowledge processes are individually too unstructured to be simulated by KM implementing infrastructure.
However, applying a cyclic approach of knowledge processes, the individuals and groups may be considered in one domain of organizational segregation to suit KM implementation. The success of a KM initiative depends on many factors, some within our control, some not. Typically, critical success factors can be categorized into five primary categories:. In addition, the review of the existing KM implementation frameworks and models in this paper reveals that they are fragmented since the elements and constructions that characterize them tend to vary.
There are little common ground and guidelines to provide a direction on what should be included in an implementation framework. Therefore, this paper develops a set of guidelines that should be considered when a KM implementation framework is to be settled. These guidelines are the results of the synthesis and analysis carried out on existing KM implementation frameworks and related KM literature. The guidelines proposed in this paper for developing a KM implementation framework are as follows:. Alazmi , M. Knowledge management critical success factors. Alsadhan A.
Akhavan , P. Bassie , L. Barclay, R. Beckman, T. Bell , D. Bhatt , G. Bierly , P. III, Kessler, E. Bryant, J. Chait , L. Choi , Y. Coates, J. Cole, R. Corrall , S. Davenport , T. Lustri , D. Drew, S. Durant-Law, G. Egbu , C. Fahey, L. Garvin, D. Levett , G. Number 3. Grant, R. Hals, S. Hansen, M. Haynes , B. An Evaluation of the Literature, Occupier. Hicks, S.
The need for knowledge management
Holsapple , C. D, , Descriptive and analysis of existing knowledge management frameworks, Hawaii international conference on system sciences. Hoog , R. Hung, Y. Johnston, R.
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Liebowitz , J. PP 37 — Halawi , L. Lengnick -Hall, M. Liss , K. Gloet , M. Both the sunk-cost effect and replacement effect will discourage incumbent firms to innovate. On the other hand, with perceiving the potential threats from competitors who are able to bring disruptive innovation, the incumbent firm will have incentive to innovate for maintaining its competitive advantage and such positive motivation is called efficiency effect.
Pitt and Clarke identified three domains of innovation for establishing competitive advantage: entrepreneurial domain, engineering domain and administrative domain. Entrepreneurial domain refers to the market or product related innovation that requires relevant business knowledge. Engineering domain refers to the technological innovation that requires relevant science and technical skill and knowledge. Administrative domain refers to the business model and process innovation that requires relevant coordination and governance knowledge.
Knowledge management system: Knowledge management system refers to a kind of information systems that is applied to managing organizational knowledge Alavi and Leidner, In practice, KMS usually is designed to efficiently arrange codified knowledge documents and provide virtual communication tool for facilitating the exchange of tacit knowledge. The first type application is the coding and sharing of best practices whereby an organization can have its members easily learn from both inside and outside experience and findings.
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The second type application is the creation of corporate knowledge directories so that an organization member can efficiently access to the specific existing knowledge instead of figuring out a new one for resolving problem. The third type application is the creation of knowledge network that consists of experts in particular fields or employees with experience on dealing with special situation and problem. To certain degree, all of these types of knowledge management system can be used to support organizational knowledge creation and innovation processes.
For instance, an innovation or new knowledge might come from a further improvement or get insightful inspiration of previous best practice. Corporate knowledge directories can be used to reduce the redundant research efforts in innovation process Lu and Feng, And the organizational knowledge network can promote knowledge exchange and integration to create new knowledge and facilitate successful innovation Malekmohammadi, ; Chung et al.
Although developing knowledge management system is not necessary to be Information Technology IT intensive, IT indeed play a more and more important role on enabling the innovation and knowledge management processes Davenport and Prusak, ; Ruggles, However, different types of IT have different advantage to support different activities in innovation and knowledge management processes Bhuvaneswari et al. For example, database management system and information retrieval techniques are quite suitable to be applied to support knowledge reposition and retrieval process but data mining technology and artificial intelligence based expert system are better to be used in supporting knowledge creation process.
From the previous literature analysis, theoretical and practical evidences pointed out that the firm needs to create and integrate knowledge for innovating continuously to outperform its competitors in present hyper-competition business world. Seeing that the KM-related capabilities are essential to successful innovation, appropriate KMS could be developed to support specific innovation and knowledge management processes. Finally, managers can prioritize their IT budgets based on the strategic positioning and knowledge management focus analysis to plan their KMS strategy and implementation.
Figure 1 is the conceptual model for this study and an analytical contingency framework. If we agree with knowledge-based view of firm that the major knowledge-based objective to managers is to create valuable new knowledge and usually such activities are regarded as a problem solving process Nickerson and Zenger, , then the managers should identify what kind of capabilities, from problem-solving perspective, the firm already established and in what level of excellence those capabilities are, so that they can choose a right battlefield and strategy to take advantage of their strongest capabilities for competition.
Figure 2 depicts a proposed strategic positioning matrix that a firm can use it to position its competitive role in terms of its capabilities of problem identification and solution searching. From the view of innovation, problem identification is defined as finding out the real market needs for the innovation and the solution searching is defined as figuring out the ways to implement the innovation.
When a firm has both high problem identification and solution searching capabilities, it means that the firm is able to sense the emerging market needs precisely and respond to it with appropriate solutions product, service or business model in a timely manner, it probably is the incumbent firm with the strongest competitive position and usually play a role of rule maker to define what an industry is and how the firms within it to compete.
Rule maker takes a lot of advantages of being the leader in price setting and economic of scale. Intel is an obvious instance as a rule maker in microprocessor market. With the substantial control power in Central Processor Unit CPU standard formulation and advanced process technology to implement the chip, Intel not only dominate the roadmap of CPU progress but can produce the most cost effective chip with the most advanced technology to serve the market.
The key challenge to rule maker is to prevent a new technology and application, sometimes called disruptive innovation, to radically change the competition landscape. If a firm has high problem identification capabilities and very limited solution searching capabilities which means that it can sense the technological trend and business needs much earlier than other rivals but struggles with product development and on time delivery. Such firms usually only bring applausive new idea to the market but are hard to earn economic profit as high as the rule maker can do.
For example, the Apple computer now the Apple Inc. If they can successful enhance its solution searching capability in that application domain, they might be possible to become the rule maker in that niche market. Comparatively, if a firm owns high solution searching capabilities but only has limited problem identification capabilities, named efficiency player in this study, it usually can only passively respond to market that defined by rule maker or idea creator.
However, as long as it can figure out what exactly the market needs, its high solution searching capabilities can quickly deliver right product to the market. For instance, The Foxconn Inc. However, not like the rule maker or idea creator such as Apple and Google, Foxconn has only limited understandings on mobile phone consumer needs and hence is not very good at designing super hit handset because it lacks necessary knowledge and capability for doing that. Efficiency player can survive with modest profit only if the pricing war not too fierce.
Like the idea creator, they need to strengthen its problem identification capabilities while they want to move to be a rule maker. A firm with neither high problem identification capabilities nor high solution searching capabilities usually follows the market leader to produce same product in the same ways. Lack of unique business model, it can only be a follower and imitate other competitors for struggling survive. Such firms cannot compete with innovation and cost advantage so that they only can earn average or below profit in industry. Followers need to clarify their strategic positioning as soon as possible or they could disappear in the intensive competitive environment.
Knowledge management system focus: Given the selected strategic positioning, firms can decide how and where to focus limited resources on implementing knowledge management process and system. According to the analysis and review of knowledge management process and system in previous study Alavi and Leidner, , rule maker can leverage its dominant position and quite plentiful resources to invest in its knowledge management system that covers all the knowledge management processes to support its business activities such as innovation. For idea creator, since problem identification capability is its comparative advantage, it had better to emphasize the KM process on knowledge creation and application and prioritize its IT resources to strengthen the KMS for supporting these processes.
If the firm intends to become a rule maker, then it should try to establish its problem solving capability in solution searching. Since the efficiency always accompanies discipline and imperative execution culture, it might conflict with the free and casual style that is common in most idea creating firms. On the opposite side, efficiency player might also like to move to be a rule maker. Consequently, they probably would like to alter their knowledge management process focus to support more on their problem identifying activities, such as knowledge creation and application process.
Just like the problem facing to idea creator, efficiency player will find the possible culture conflicts when they attempt to alter their existing knowledge management process focus to fit the new goal. In such situation, its KMS should be able to facilitating knowledge sharing and utilization to encourage new idea emergence through interactive dialog and collaboration. Employees in efficiency player firms may get used to only doing defined job well rather than trying new idea, how to turn the organizational climate to avoid these new knowledge management processes fail is a valid challenge Table 1.
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As to follower, it will find that it is very hard to take advantage of the strategic position. Therefore, they have to decide on being either an idea creator or an efficiency player first. By doing this, the firm can accumulate necessary resources and capital for fulfilling the requirements of turning to higher strategic position. For rule maker, the focus of knowledge management system has to be very supportive in facilitating internal and external knowledge exchange, integration and creation. For idea creator, the focus had better to emphasize the KM process on knowledge creation and application and prioritize its IT resources to strengthen the KMS for supporting these processes.
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Since the idea creator and efficiency player might have a quite different organizational culture due to the different skill sets and mindsets, both of them are facing big challenge to move to be a rule maker in refining their knowledge-based capabilities and resources. For example, globalization, which is seen as a threat to many local communities, owes its pervasiveness to the worldwide networks that provide instant communication, including Internet.
More routinely, there has emerged the ability to access data, information and knowledge in ways that would have astounded our grandparents. Video conferencing is commonplace. We can work and learn together in a collaborative way remotely from each other. New e-learning tools mean that we can experience a sophisticated, interactive learning experience in the comfort of our own homes.
Gradually we are seeing the uptake of the merger between television, the mobile phone and the computer. This all provides huge changes for the next generations of learners. The Death of Distance. Harvard Business School Press. However, universal access to data, information and knowledge clearly does not yet exist, and for many developing countries, it is still a distant aspiration.
Access to ICTs, notably the telephone, mobile phone, internet and broadcast networks, remains unequally distributed. There are, for example, more computers in Brazil, more fixed line telephones in Italy, more mobile phones in Japan and more internet users in France, than in the whole continent of Africa. Yet the population of Africa and the needs of its people greatly exceed those of these other countries However, despite problems, access by developing countries to the World Wide Web is growing fast. Latin America is a clear example.
It shows a rapid growth in connections to the World Wide Web with more than million connected to Internet at the turn of last century. However, the challenging question is how much can or will be made of the Internet for educational purposes and learning. World Telecommunication Indicators Database. International Telecommunication Union. Although technology alone is not enough, Information and Communication Technology ICT is crucial to support knowledge management activities.
ICT for knowledge management includes in principle three kinds of systems: systems to support knowledge storage, like knowledge and information systems; systems that help to improve knowledge processes, and systems that improve organizational learning. Besides there are also systems that can combine the functionality of more than one of the systems mentioned above such as groupware systems, internet and intranet and Lotus Notes. The network paradigm is a seductive vision to solve all the above ills in one go: why not connect the North with the South and cross-connect all the involved actors with networks?
With such linkages, activities could be coordinated, knowledge could be shared between North and South as well as within and among the countries of the South, best practices could be exchanged, and common standards and procedures developed. Many have succumbed to this alluring vision and countless networks exist in the development sectorTP 34 PT. With the growing recognition that most learning is informal, and that connecting people can help sharing knowledge, the focus has become on human groupings under various labels, like communities of ideas 35 , communities of practice CoPs 36 , formal knowledge networks and virtual teams 37 , knowledge networks 38 , thematic networks 39 , virtual knowledge communities 40 , international networks for knowledge sharing 41 and thematic groups Learning, particularly social learning in groups and organizational learning is the key.
Social or collective learning, fundamental to how development practices are improved, is key for these networks. They have emerged nowadays as a principal organizing concept in sharing knowledge. The physical interaction of participants is usually found to be essential in launching such communities or networks, but once they are launched, technology can extend the reach of a network around the globe. ICT is becoming a catalyst in this process.
ICT makes it possible to get access to global information in a way that was never possible before The social organization of innovation, a focus on stakeholder interaction Royal Tropical Institute: Amsterdam, pp. Communities of practice: learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, pp.
Helping knowledge networks work, Version 1. World Bank Institute Thematic Groups. Communities of practice and networks: reviewing two perspectives on social learning KM4D Journal 1 1 : 6—21 www. Organizations and groups of professionals are taking advantage of the opportunities offered by the new technology to initiate these communities and networks.
According to Engel 46 one of the main problems constraining the development of sustainable solutions is the one-sidedness of many social and institutional learning processes. Innovation however has to be approached as a process of interplay among social actors from relevant social practices. This interplay is a diffuse social process which leads to new or modified problem definitions and practical solutions.
It can be qualified as networking in-and-between relevant social practices. Over time, this process of networking may lead to the gradual development of a pattern of more or less durable relationships among a number of social actors who perceive each other as relevant. Therefore, we need to introduce the concept of networking Advantages of this are that the concept of networking entails explicit recognition of ourselves as social beings, and it is connected to our concern for sustainability, since this can only be achieved where people have worked out a way of interacting with each other.
Annual Report Project No. United Nations Development Programme. The interest in networking for learning has been growing during recent years. Creech and Willard 49 recognise four fundamental drivers behind this interest:.
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Networks and policy processes in international development: a literature review Unpublished paper. Strategic intentions: managing knowledge networks for sustainable development International Institute for Sustainable Development: Winnipeg, pp. It helps channel the knowledge and experience gained through local initiatives, into higher levels of shared understanding and improved policy advocacy. In that sense learning-oriented networks represent civil society's answer to the challenges of the emerging knowledge society see also Engel and van Zee Donors should recognise this central role of networking initiatives in boosting the knowledge base, learning processes and the civil society actors' capacity to generate and advocate proposals, and relate their funding to the relative importance they attach to it.
Capacity development, institution building, advocacy and societal change, to name just a few, are unthinkable without a considerable investment in improving networking and learning among relevant development actors. Donors should invest in learning-oriented networking amongst their partners because they want to enable civil society both globally and locally to play a strong role in shaping the ideas and knowledge that determine our future. Besides, such investments are vital to sustain their own learning; sponsoring learning-oriented networking cannot be lacking in donors' global knowledge for development strategies Networking for learning: what can participants do?
Networking among scientists and professionals has become the new model to tackle capacity building and offers great challenges to developing countries. However, access to global information without knowledge of the local situation and context has little sense. Therefore creating international networks of professionals and communities of practice that share best practices and lessons learned from both the South and the North could be a very efficient way to this end.
Moreover through such networks, developing countries can learn directly from each other by sharing indigenous knowledge and recent development successes and failures as well as from donor-country experts. At the same time it allows development institutions in the North to become more responsive to demand and knowledge flows in the South. Lopes, K. Capacity for Development. New Solutions to Old Problems. Knowledge networks tend to be more focused and narrowly-based than information networks; more cross-sectoral and cross-regional than internal knowledge management networks; more outward-looking than communities of practice; and they involve more partners than some strategic alliances.
Hereafter some essential conceptual and system elements for the development of a network will be elaborated. It is argued that this is the place where knowledge is generated, shared and disseminated. The third building block is the concept of Internet-based learning and education. With respect to dissemination of knowledge it is observed that both formal education and informal learning are changing rapidly due to the availability of modern ICT tools.
Finally the concept of an internet-based, interactive platform is introduced as a promising knowledge management tool to offer functionalities and to deliver services to the members of the network. Capacity Building in water sector in Africa. Proposal for a Nile river Network. Paris, 2—4 June For every knowledge network it is essential to know where and what the problems are.
Moreover it is equally important to get access to places where relevant knowledge is generated and produced. In both cases it is necessary to get direct access to the main players in the field: the water professionals active in both public and private water sector institutions ministries, research institutions, water utilities, consultants and contractors and local capacity builders universities, poly-techniques, professional organizations, research and study teams.
Effective communication can only be achieved if the provider presents knowledge that the consumer has a desire to receive and in a form that the consumer can assimilate. Internet has opened up new opportunities for a two-way communication and collaboration. The establishment of a network will be in support of this opportunity. In particular, services can be tailored to meet the needs of the individual and the group.
This feature is probably one of the most important benefits of Internet, and lies at the heart of the network initiative. Knowledge Networks are primarily networks of people, who share a common interest, exchange ideas, and help each other. They often develop among people with a common professional background, but they can form around almost anything. Networks in general often have little sense of common identity.
Although individuals within a network may meet frequently person-to-person, the whole network rarely meets or sees itself as a whole. Communities of Practice are the places where real value is produced through sharing ideas, insight, information, experience and tools. Wenger et al Communities of practice are groups of people that gather around a common interest or theme, and deepen their knowledge by interacting on an ongoing basis. Such communities are where people are attracted to share a common technical interest, where they learn, teach and trust each other, and invent and develop a common sense of purpose.
In practice, all kinds of communities exist that have emerged of their own accord. They can consist of three, 20 or maybe 30 people that have found themselves drawn to one another by a force that is both social and professional. These communities cannot rely on face-to-face meetings and interactions since they link people across time zones, countries, organizational units, languages and cultures. They rely heavily on ICT technology.