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The list of data comprising state secrets shall be determined by a federal law. Everyone shall have the right to association, including the right to create trade unions for the protection of his or her interests. The freedom of activity of public association shall be guaranteed. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to assemble peacefully, without weapons, hold rallies, meetings and demonstrations, marches and pickets.

Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to participate in managing state affairs both directly and through their representatives. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to elect and be elected to state bodies of power and local self-government bodies, and also to participate in referenda. Deprived of the right to elect and be elected shall be citizens recognized by court as legally unfit, as well as citizens kept in places of confinement by a court sentence.

Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to address personally, as well as to submit individual and collective appeals to state organs and local self-government bodies. Everyone shall have the right to a free use of his abilities and property for entrepreneurial and economic activities not prohibited by law. Everyone shall have the right to have property, possess, use and dispose of it both personally and jointly with other people.

No one may be deprived of property otherwise than by a court decision. Forced confiscation of property for state needs may be carried out only on the proviso of preliminary and complete compensation. Possession, utilization and disposal of land and other natural resources shall be exercised by the owners freely, if it is not detrimental to the environment and does not violate the rights and lawful interests of other people.

Labour is free. Everyone shall have the right to freely use his labour capabilities, to choose the type of activity and profession.


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Everyone shall have the right to labour conditions meeting the safety and hygienic requirements, for labour remuneration without any discrimination whatsoever and not lower than minimum wages and salaries established by the federal law, as well as the right to protection against unemployment. Recognition shall be given to the right to individual and collective labour disputes with the use of methods of their adjustment fixed by the federal law, including the right to strike.

Everyone shall have the right to rest and license. Those working by labour contracts shall be guaranteed the fixed duration of the working time, days off and holidays, and the annual paid leave established by the federal law. Everyone shall be guaranteed social security at the expense of the State in old age, in case of an illness, disableness, loss of the bread-winner, for upbringing of children and in other cases established by law.

Promotion shall be given to voluntary social insurance and the creation of additional forms of social security and charity. Everyone shall have the right to a home. No one may be arbitrarily deprived of his or her home. The bodies of state authority and local self-government shall encourage housing construction and create conditions for exercising the right to a home. Low-income people and other persons mentioned in law and in need of a home shall receive it gratis or for reasonable payment from the state, municipal and other housing stocks according to the norms fixed by law. Everyone shall have the right to health protection and medical aid.

Medical aid in state and municipal health establishments shall be rendered to individuals gratis, at the expense of the corresponding budget, insurance contributions, and other proceeds. In the Russian Federation federal programmes of protecting and strengthening the health of the population shall be financed by the State; measures shall be adopted to develop state, municipal and private health services; activities shall be promoted which facilitate the strengthening of health, the development of physical culture and sport, ecological and sanitary-epidemiological well-being.

The concealment by officials of the facts and circumstances posing a threat to the life and health of people shall entail responsibility according to the federal law.

Everyone shall have the right to favourable environment, reliable information about its state and for a restitution of damage inflicted on his health and property by ecological transgressions. Guarantees shall be provided for general access to and free pre-school, secondary and high vocational education in state or municipal educational establishments and at enterprises. Everyone shall have the right to receive on a competitive basis a free higher education in a state or municipal educational establishment and at an enterprise.

The basic general education shall be free of charge. Parents or persons in law parents shall enable their children to receive a basic general education. The Russian Federation shall establish federal state educational standards and support various forms of education and self-education.

Private Property and the Constitution: State Powers, Public Rights, and Economic Liberties (ebook)

Everyone shall be guaranteed the freedom of literary, artistic, scientific, technical and other types of creative activity, and teaching. Intellectual property shall be protected by law. Everyone shall have the right to participate in cultural life and use cultural establishments and to an access to cultural values. Everyone shall be obliged to care for the preservation of cultural and historical heritage and protect monuments of history and culture.

State protection of the rights and freedoms of man and citizen shall be guaranteed in the Russian Federation.


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Decisions and actions or inaction of bodies of state authority and local self-government, public associations and officials may be appealed against in court. Everyone shall have the right to appeal, according to international treaties of the Russian Federation, to international bodies for the protection of human rights and freedoms, if all the existing internal state means of legal protection have been exhausted.

No one may be deprived of the right to the consideration of his or her case in that court and by that judge in whose cognizance the given case is according to law.

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The accused of committing a crime shall have the right to the examination of his case by a court of jury in cases envisaged by the federal law. Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to qualified legal assistance. In cases envisaged by law the legal assistance shall be free. Any person detained, taken into custody, accused of committing a crime shall have the right to receive assistance of a lawyer counsel for the defence from the moment of detention, confinement in custody or facing charges accordingly. Everyone accused of committing a crime shall be considered innocent until his guilt is proved according to the rules fixed by the federal law and confirmed by the sentence of a court which has come into legal force.

In administering justice it shall not be allowed to use evidence received by violating the federal law. Everyone convicted for a crime shall have the right to appeal against the judgement of a superior court according to the rules envisaged by the federal law, as well as to ask for pardon or a mitigation of punishment.

No one shall be obliged to give incriminating evidence, husband or wife and close relatives the range of whom is determined by the federal law. The rights of victims of crimes and of abuse of office shall be protected by law. The State shall provide access to justice for them and a compensation for sustained damage. Everyone shall have the right for a state compensation for damages caused by unlawful actions inaction of bodies of state authority and their officials.

No one may bear responsibility for the action which was not regarded as a crime when it was committed. If after violating law the responsibility for that is eliminated or mitigated, a new law shall be applied. The listing in the Constitution of the Russian Federation of the fundamental rights and freedoms shall not be interpreted as a rejection or derogation of other universally recognized human rights and freedoms. The collection, processing, designated use, supervision, and protection of the confidentiality of personal data shall be provided by law.

Everyone has the right of access to the collected personal data that relates to him and the right to judicial protection in the event of any abuse of such data. Freedom of expression of thought, freedom of speech and public appearance, freedom of the press, and other forms of public communication and expression shall be guaranteed. Everyone may freely collect, receive, and disseminate information and opinions. Except in such cases as are provided by law, everyone has the right to obtain information of a public nature in which he has a well founded legal interest under law.

The right to correct published information which has damaged a right or interest of an individual, organisation, or body shall be guaranteed, as shall be the right to reply to such published information. Religious and other beliefs may be freely professed in private and public life. No one shall be obliged to declare his religious or other beliefs. Parents have the right to provide their children with a religious and moral upbringing in accordance with their beliefs.

The religious and moral guidance given to children must be appropriate to their age and maturity, and be consistent with their free conscience and religious and other beliefs or convictions. The right of peaceful assembly and public meeting shall be guaranteed. Everyone has the right to freedom of association with others. Legal restrictions of these rights shall be permissible where so required for national security or public safety and for protection against the spread of infectious diseases. Professional members of the defence forces and the police may not be members of political parties.

The right to vote shall be universal and equal. Every citizen who has attained the age of eighteen years has the right to vote and be elected. The law may provide in which cases and under what conditions aliens have the right to vote. Participation in the Management of Public Affairs. No citizen of Slovenia may be extradited or surrendered unless such obligation to extradite or surrender arises from a treaty by which, in accordance with the provisions of the first paragraph of Article 3a, Slovenia has transferred the exercise of part of its sovereign rights to an international organisation.

The original text of Article 47 read as follows:. The extradition of aliens shall only be permitted in cases covered by treaties that are binding on Slovenia. Within the limits of the law, the right of asylum shall be recognised to foreign nationals and stateless persons who are subject to persecution for their commitment to human rights and fundamental freedoms. Citizens have the right to social security, including the right to a pension, under conditions provided by law. The state shall regulate compulsory health, pension, disability, and other social insurance, and shall ensure its proper functioning.

Special protection in accordance with the law shall be guaranteed to war veterans and victims of war. Everyone has the right to health care under conditions provided by law. The rights to health care from public funds shall be provided by law.

Chapter 2. Rights and Freedoms of Man and Citizen

No one may be compelled to undergo medical treatment except in cases provided by law. Disabled persons shall be guaranteed protection and work-training in accordance with the law. Physically or mentally handicapped children and other severely disabled persons have the right to education and training for an active life in society. The education and training referred to in the preceding paragraph shall be financed from public funds. Marriage is based on the equality of spouses. Marriages shall be solemnised before an empowered state authority. Marriage and the legal relations within it and the family, as well as those within an extramarital union, shall be regulated by law.

The state shall protect the family, motherhood, fatherhood, children, and young people and shall create the necessary conditions for such protection. Parents have the right and duty to maintain, educate, and raise their children. This right and duty may be revoked or restricted only for such reasons as are provided by law in order to protect the child's interests. Children born out of wedlock have the same rights as children born within it. Everyone shall be free to decide whether to bear children.

The state shall guarantee the opportunities for exercising this freedom and shall create such conditions as will enable parents to decide to bear children. Children shall enjoy special protection and care. Children shall enjoy human rights and fundamental freedoms consistent with their age and maturity. Children shall be guaranteed special protection from economic, social, physical, mental, or other exploitation and abuse.

Such protection shall be regulated by law.

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Children and minors who are not cared for by their parents, who have no parents or who are without proper family care shall enjoy the special protection of the state. Their position shall be regulated by law. Freedom of education shall be guaranteed. Primary education is compulsory and shall be financed from public funds. The state shall create the opportunities for citizens to obtain a proper education. State universities and state institutions of higher education shall be autonomous.

The manner of their financing shall be regulated by law. The protection of copyright and other rights deriving from artistic, scientific, research, and invention activities shall be guaranteed. Everyone has the right to freely express affiliation with his nation or national community, to foster and give expression to his culture, and to use his language and script. Everyone has the right to use his language and script in a manner provided by law in the exercise of his rights and duties and in procedures before state and other authorities performing a public function.

Any incitement to national, racial, religious, or other discrimination, and the inflaming of national, racial, religious, or other hatred and intolerance are unconstitutional. Any incitement to violence and war is unconstitutional. The autochthonous Italian and Hungarian national communities and their members shall be guaranteed the right to use their national symbols freely and, in order to preserve their national identity, the right to establish organisations and develop economic, cultural, scientific, and research activities, as well as activities in the field of public media and publishing.

In accordance with laws, these two national communities and their members have the right to education and schooling in their own languages, as well as the right to establish and develop such education and schooling. The geographic areas in which bilingual schools are compulsory shall be established by law.

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These national communities and their members shall be guaranteed the right to foster relations with their nations of origin and their respective countries. The state shall provide material and moral support for the exercise of these rights.

II. HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS (Articles 14* - 65)

In order to exercise their rights, the members of these communities shall establish their own self-governing communities in the geographic areas where they live. On the proposal of these self-governing national communities, the state may authorise them to perform certain functions under national jurisdiction, and shall provide funds for the performing of such functions. The two national communities shall be directly represented in representative bodies of local self-government and in the National Assembly.

The position of the Italian and Hungarian national communities and the manner in which their rights are exercised in the geographic areas where they live, the obligations of the self-governing local communities for the exercise of these rights, and those rights which the members of these national communities exercise also outside these areas, shall all be regulated by law.