Bonaparte drove back Alvinczy [ where? Alvinczy held off a French attack at Caldiero on 12 November and Bonaparte was forced to withdraw. In the following three-day Battle of Arcole , Bonaparte won an important and surprising [ to whom? Both sides were reinforced before Alvinczy launched another attack in January.
Bonaparte defeated this renewed assault at the Battle of Rivoli , inflicting some 14, casualties. Then he surrounded and captured a second Austrian relief column near Mantua.
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Soon after, Mantua finally surrendered to the French, making it possible for the French to continue their advance eastwards towards Austria. After a brief campaign during which the Austrian army was commanded by the Emperor's brother, the Archduke Charles , the French advanced to within miles of Vienna, and the Austrians sued for peace.
Bonaparte's campaign was important in bringing an end to the War of the First Coalition. The second phase of the war in Italy began in as part of the War of the Second Coalition and was different from the first in that Russian forces participated in the campaign. However, at the beginning of the conflict the Russians were yet to arrive. Bonaparte, meanwhile, was away from the continent, as from May, to September, he was leading the Egyptian Campaign. An additional 50, Russians were expected to arrive shortly. The French were occupied with the pacification of Naples and this halved their effective strength to face the Austrians.
Napoleon's Foreign Infantry : Italian : Polish : Irish : German : Swiss
The Austrian commander, Michael von Melas , was slow to pursue the retreating French and was soon replaced as overall Coalition commander in the theatre by the brilliant Field Marshal Alexander Suvorov. The French defeat at the Battle of Cassano on 26 April was followed by withdrawal from Lombardy and an overall unfavourable situation for the French.
General Macdonald's army returned from Naples to support Moreau. An initial Allied attack across the Po failed on 11 May. Moreau's army was in tatters with just 9, men remaining. An attempted counter-attack was beaten back by Russian General Petr Bagration. Suvorov soon occupied Turin and proclaimed the restoration of Piedmont to its king. The Army of the Alps engaged the Austro-Russian forces in a series of minor skirmishes, but did not come to the rescue of the Army of Italy.
Suvorov overran a number of French garrisons and continued his relentless advance. Macdonald engaged Suvorov in the Battle of the Trebbia and was crushed. Macdonald retreated with the remnant of his army to Genoa whilst Suvorov reached Novi. The Austrian high command ordered a halt to Allied offensives whilst the French garrisons of Mantua and Alessandria were overrun see siege of Mantua and siege of Alessandria. Soon after this Moreau was dispatched to the Rhine and Joubert was sent to command the Army of Italy. Suvorov, acting under orders from the Coalition high command, paused to gather his strength for an offensive in Autumn.
On 9 August, the French launched offensive of 38, men called the Battle of Novi. The offensive was thoroughly defeated by Suvorov, and resulted in the death of Joubert.
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Moreau, who had yet to depart for the Rhine , seized the initiative and led the survivors back to Genoa and began preparing a defence of the city. However at that time the Allied high command in Vienna ordered Suvorov to move out of Italy and concentrate on breaking through the Swiss front. The respite this gave the reeling Army of Italy led to a turning point in the war.
Melas, who resumed command of Coalition forces in Italy, now almost exclusively Austrian, paused the offensive and consolidated his forces, now that the Russians had been removed from Italy.
Napoleon Bonaparte: The Little Corporal who built an Empire
By the spring of Russia had withdrawn entirely from the Coalition. The situation in Italy, however, was still very much on the side of the Coalition. Melas had some , men under his command, opposed by just 50, French troops who were thoroughly dispersed. The Allies prepared for a thrust into southern France and across the Rhine, much further north.
The defeat of Austria, 1800–01
Melas moved forward slowly, laying siege to Genoa and halting his advance elsewhere. Genoa fell before the First Consul could reach it. He concentrated his army and struck at the Austrians in an attempt to beat them before they too concentrated their forces again. The consul was almost defeated here until General Desaix made a timely arrival with reinforcements and drove back Melas, thus turning a French rout into a French victory.
In this counter-attack Desaix was killed, but Bonaparte later honoured him with monuments commemorating his bravery and his name has the place of honour on the face of the Arc de Triomphe , which was erected to celebrate Napoleon's victories. Marengo was the last major engagement on the Italian front during the Revolutionary Wars. Following it the massive Battle of Hohenlinden brought the Austrians to the negotiating table and the war ended shortly after. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Italian Campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars. French Revolutionary Wars. Rich provinces, great of artillery, several strong positions, and conquered the richest part of Piedmont [a region in northern Italy]; you have captured 15, prisoners and killed or wounded more than 10, men.
You have won battles without cannon, crossed rivers without bridges, made forced marches without shoes, camped without brandy and often without bread. Soldiers of liberty, only republican phalanxes [infantry troops] could have endured what you have endured. Soldiers, you have our thanks!
The grateful Patrie [nation] will owe its prosperity to you. The two armies which but recently attacked you with audacity are fleeing before you in terror; the wicked men who laughed at your misery and rejoiced at the thought of the triumphs of your enemies are confounded and trembling. Undoubtedly the greatest obstacles have been overcome; but you still have battles to fight, cities to capture, rivers to cross. Is there one among you whose courage is abating? All of you are consumed with a desire to extend the glory of the French people; all of you long to humiliate those arrogant kings who dare to contemplate placing us in fetters; all of you desire to dictate a glorious peace, one which will indemnify the Patrie for the immense sacrifices it has made; all of you wish to be able to say with pride as you return to your villages, "I was with the victorious army of Italy!
Otherwise you would not be the liberators of the people; you would be their scourge. Plunderers will be shot without mercy; already, several have been.