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How does the Internet support the connection, aggregation, and use of these data in ways not before possible? Thirdly, is the need to recognize the role of commercial and private actors in the growth of Internet-based education. Indeed, the role of the private sector is integral to many of the forms of Internet-based education described in this chapter. A range of multinational commercial interests such as Pearson, Cengage, and McGraw-Hill are now involved heavily in the business of e-learning and online provision of teaching and training—competing with countless smaller commercial concerns and a range of nonprofit organizations.

Of course, the increased involvement of commercial interests in online education could be seen to have many potential benefits. The private sector is able to focus considerable technological resources and expertise on educational issues. Face it. For example, how committed are IT producers and vendors to the public good of educational technology above and beyond matters of profit and market share? What are the moral and ethical implications of reshaping education along the lines of market forces and commercial values?

Why should education correspond automatically with the needs of the digital economy? Finally—and perhaps less tangibly—there is also a sense that the Internet might be altering the psychological, emotional, and spiritual bases of education.

This raises questions of what is perhaps lost when one is able to engage with education at all times of the day and in all contexts? Is there something to be said for being able to disconnect from the pressures of education? Is learning best suited to some contexts and circumstances than others? Many of the forms of online education described in this chapter could also be said to frame learning often inadvertently as a competitive endeavor. Thus while a sense of achievement at the expense of others may not be immediately apparent, the Internet could be seen as a means of humanizing, disguising, and intensifying the competitive connotations of learning.

All these points also relate to the correspondences between the Internet and the altered emotional aspects of educational engagement. In particular, many of the forms of Internet-based education described earlier in this chapter such as the virtual school or the MOOC could be said to involve learning being experienced on less immediate, less intimate, and perhaps more instrumental grounds. Certainly, the remote, virtual sense of learning online is qualitatively different to the embodied sense of face-to-face learning—both in advantageous and disadvantageous ways.

The predominantly optimistic rhetoric of transformation and change that currently surrounds the Internet and education distracts from a number of significant conflicts and tensions that need to be better acknowledged and addressed. There are, after all, many people who will be advantaged by more individualized, elitist, competitive, market-driven, omnipresent, and de-emotionalized forms of educational engagement. The Internet clearly works for the millions of people who are learning online at this very moment.

Perhaps the most important point to consider is the well-worn tendency of digital technology to reinforce existing patterns of educational engagement—helping already engaged individuals to participate further, but doing little to widen participation or reengage those who are previously disengaged. To reiterate a key theme that has emerged throughout our discussion, underlying all of the issues raised in this chapter are questions of what sort of future education one believes in.

The future of education may well involve increased use of the Internet—but will not be determined by it. Allen, Ansgar. Arora, Payal. A Digital Promise for Free Learning. Bernstein, Basil. New York: Peter Lang, Boyd, Danah, and Kate Crawford. Bush, Jeb, and Rosario Dawson. Chubb, John, and Terry Moe. Collins, Allan, and Richard Halverson. Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology. New York: Teachers College Press, Cuban, Larry. Eynon, Rebecca. Horst et al. Luckin, Rosemary. London: Routledge, Mitra, Sugata. Oblinger, Diana G.

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Game Changers: Education and Information Technologies. Washington, D. Picciano, Anthony G. Sennett, Richard. London: Allen Lane, Siemens, George. Open Learning Analytics. Berlin: Springer, Tapscott, Don. New York: McGraw Hill, Thomas, Douglas, and Seely Brown, John. A New Culture of Learning. Charleston, SC: Createspace, Tyack, David, and Cuban, Larry. Whitby, Greg. Sydney: Harper Collins, Willinsky, John.

Cybersecurity and digital trade: Getting it right

Glass, eds. Charlotte, NC: Information Age, Wolff, Jonathan. Wolfson, Lisa. We use our own and third-party cookies to offer you a pleasant experience and display to users advertising related with your preferences, based on analysis of your browsing habits. By continuing to browse this website you agree to their use.

You can change the cookie settings or obtain further information by accessing our cookies policy. Click Enter. Login Profile. Es En. Economy Humanities Science Technology. Leading Figures. Multimedia OpenMind books Authors. Featured author. Xavier Vives. Latest book. Towards a New Enlightenment? A Transcendent Decade. Start The Internet and Education. Technology Digital World. Change Education Innovation Internet Sociology. Neil Selwyn. Estimated reading time Time 23 to read. Introduction In many ways, it is difficult to discuss any aspect of contemporary society without considering the Internet.

As such, this chapter will consider the following questions: What are the potential implications of the Internet for education and learning? What dominant forms of Internet-based education have emerged over the past 20 years? How does the educational potential of the Internet relate to the realities of its use? Most importantly, how should we understand the potential gains and losses of what is being advanced? The Internet as an Educational Tool For many commentators, the Internet has always been an inherently educational tool.

Bush and Dawson References Allen, Ansgar. Bauman, Zygmunt. The Individualized Society. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, Jarvis, Jeff. What Would Google Do? London: Collins, These developments have certainly brought great benefit. Whole careers have been propelled to dizzying heights, some almost solely by the power of the internet and social media. The whole character of the global economy has changed — companies and enterprises across the world have prospered and wilted as they venture into this new frontier with varying degrees of success.

Vast reserves of information lie at the fingertips of anyone with an internet connection, of which there are very many — over 3. The world of cyberspace is indeed a new frontier; rich in data, information, and promises of opportunity. Judge for yourself. Think about some of the biggest headlines over the past year — Equifax, Wannacry, Anonymous, hacktivism, and national elections. Notice anything? The main breach took place in mid-May. It was not detected by Equifax until late July — several weeks on — and only made public in September, almost four months after the attack occurred.

Even now, in October, the full extent of the breach and its consequences are still being investigated. More troubling are the implications, for both now and the future. We have not even considered yet the fact that Equifax needed at least two months to detect the threat, much less respond to it, effectively meaning that the perpetrators had at least two months to make origami out of the sensitive information they had broken into.

Without getting into how the identities of nearly million victims have effectively been stolen and what this means for them, the effect on Equifax itself has been staggering. Their stocks tumbled with the announcement of the breach in September, and many of their key figures — including their own CEO — have been replaced and ordered to publicly explain themselves. Already the company faces a growing line of lawsuits, some of which are demanding very large sums indeed. More recently, Juniper Research predicted that the total cost of data breaches alone will rise to 2.

The Equifax breach is clear evidence that these figures are by no means far-fetched, and is a grim reminder of the very real dangers in the world of cyberspace. This is far from an isolated incident — the Wannacry ransomware attacks struck computers in every corner of the world, from governments and corporations to ordinary individuals, remotely locking them down and demanding.

The LinkedIn breach exposed the passwords of millions of its users to cybercriminals. These are only a few of numerous accounts. A more frightening aspect is these are only the incidents we are aware of. According to some experts, a very considerable proportion of cyberattacks are simply not detected, quietly bypassing all security measures.

So, what does this all mean? This question is simple. Cyberspace has tremendous potential as a weapon, one whose power has not been fully understood but is nonetheless pursued, perhaps reasonably, by many people and organisations all over the world for their own ends. For example, it is very possible weaponised cyberattacks will add a new dimension to any future war, whose terrifying power may never be truly known until it is used as such, perhaps in a similar way to how the atomic bomb changed the face of warfare forever during the s.

The scale of these developments should be a wake-up call. They have already demonstrated their power to change the very ebb and flow of history, with no sign of ever slowing down. The cyberspace frontier may be a big place — but, no matter what happens, you will not be missed. Discussed were methods for not only bridging the global literacy gap, but ensuring developing countries were well-equipped to access and maneuver through the digital world.


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By UNESCO statistics, seven hundred and fifty million people are illiterate worldwide, with sixty three percent of those people being women. As such, efforts. In many developing countries, education tends to be unequally distributed between rural and urban areas. In Kenya, schools in rural or low-income areas typically have only the most basic amenities such as chalkboards, desks, and a limited supply of worn-out textbooks. While more and more students are coming to these schools to receive an education, the quality of education they receive is lower than that of both students in developed countries, and their peers in urban areas.

As well, these schools tend to focus only on traditional subjects, which although important and necessary, do not fully prepare students for the ever-increasing technological world. When an individual, or a country, lacks expertise with technology, they may become more dependent on other actors to provide the daily services that they could themselves accomplish with education in the area. Digital literacy is not solely taught through computer the issues. Without proper quantities of teachers and propscience classes.

Many children gain familiarity with vari- er infrastructure, even virtual classrooms will not be able ous gadgets and tools through simple exposure and in- to deal with the increasing influx of students attending teractions. As such, many social science researchers and schools. A Greater increases to technology across the world must joint study by MIT and Harvard University concluded be accompanied by greater efforts to eliminate the techthat technologically conducted instruction, such as com- nology and education gap between developed and develputer or mobile phone-instructed learning, enhanced stu- oping countries.

Closing this gap has become a universal dent learning in rural or low-income areas. Human conlation on educational capacity. In Kenya, the government has even revamped its curriculum and reallocated its funding to focus on creating an electronic based curriculum, and providing digital access to all its students. Through having a workforce that is digitally literate, more local programs and businesses can be internally established, leading to an increase in jobs and improvement in standards of living. In Kenya, especially rural and low-income areas, basic school infrastructure such as multi-room buildings and teachers are still underfunded, however.

The government, instead of allocating funding to solve these fundamental holes, has established a new program focused on supplying technological aids. Supplying digital aids to schools in developing countries is a solution to the problem of lack of available digital technology, but there are additional obstacles to education in developing countries.

While digital literacy is, and will continue to be vital to development, entirely virtual classrooms may not solve all. In the smartphone-centric world we live in, smartphones are an exemplary tool to help in a crisis. A smartphone is an incredible resource that is readily available. By using apps, aid organizations can maximize the way they deliver aid and what provisions they offer. Our world is dominated by technology, however in terms of aid relief, we are not using technology to its full potential. Organizations must keep up with technology and its prevalence in order to offer the most effective aid.

It helps connect refugees to resources like food, health services, legal aid, and many other services by using location technology and user information. RefAid was created in the past year and is now a major aspect of assisting refugees. It helps them to find their route, offers assistance along the way, and provides help with their integration once they have reached safety. Created by Shelley Taylor and launched in February of , the app has partnered with aid organizations across the world, notably organizations such as the Red Cross, Save the Children, and Doctors of the World.

RefAid is not the only refugee aid app that exists. There are many others such as Refugermany, Where2help, and InfoAid. Most of these apps are on a smaller scale and are much more localized than RefAid. They are based mostly in Europe, usually a first stop for refugees. These local apps provide refugees with information such as border crossings, transport departures, residency regulations, job openings in host coun-. The popularity of these apps are gaining traction and the demand for apps on a local scale will only increase. Assisting in the migration, then integration of refugees is crucial.

It can provide refugees with a sense of community, support, and the ease of convenience after their often traumatic journey. Refugee aid apps will also provide refugees with a platform. Refugees are often denied the right to speak of their experiences, and they may feel silenced. After all the hardship refugees experience, they deserve for their voice to be heard. Providing them with a way to share their stories and a support network will be key to their healing.

The logic behind refugee aid apps has the potential to revolutionize aid. It could change the way we view aid, as well as how we provide it. In the midst of crisis, it is very hard for organizations to gain accurate information to provide help. Much of aid is given without proper consultation to the recipients, this can result in giving food insufficiently and not taking into account cultural differences. The aid being provided, although well intended, may not translate. Integrating technology, specifically smartphones, into crisis response would result in a direct communication line from refugees to organizations.

Aid agencies should better understand the refugee experience and the diversity that comes with it. While these apps may seem to be a game-changer for the aid industry, specifically in the current refugee crisis, there are pitfalls. They may expose people as being refugees, which may be a serious danger throughout their travel and while in their host country due to local hostilities surrounding refugees. The apps need to assure users a level of anonymity. Another problem is aid organizations, more specifically, the lack of regulations and lenient criteria needed to set up one.

Posing as an aid organization, predators may use the app to target the vulnerable. Shelley Taylor, RefAid creator, stated that they want to be sure that no one can use the platform for malicious purposes such as trafficking women or children, so they are very strict about who can use it. For the smaller apps, however, this could be a real issue. Another problem with refugee aid apps are the expenses. Although the apps reduce costs and increase efficiency of aid organizations, it is the app that picks up the bill. Unfortunately, financing aid will always be problematic.

Apps experience this problem frequently since they are more of a middleman between organizations and recipients. Although the downsides are heavy, they do not dispute or negate the value apps bring to refugees. These apps can assist refugees in a variety of ways that were previously impossible. The apps offer the opportunity to connect refugees with people in host countries to speed the immigration process, and make for a successful integration.

The use of apps in aid, specifically refugee aid, is an innovative new strategy for crisis response. It provides refugees with support throughout their journey, support that is crucial to creating successful migration stories. It is a quick and easy way to give out essential information in characters. Many politicians, most notably President Donald Trump, use Twitter to push their political agendas and to express their ideas. While this can be a useful tool to directly engage with your audience, it comes with many complications as well. While Twitter provides a medium for everyone to express their thoughts on a political situation, effectively democratizing the political conversation, there have been critiques of it as a platform.

Obviously, this makes it difficult to follow or engage in a political discourse when a user on Twitter has trouble reading and connecting several scattered Tweets about different subjects. Twitter is also known for their , now turned character limit per post. While they have made new features such as quoting a Tweet, creating a poll and being able to post 4 pictures at a time, characters is still short.

This makes it difficult to talk about complex political situations that require extensive detail to be discussed. Twitter is being used more and more by political figures and as a way to for the public talk about political situations. Twitter as a medium played a significant role in the American presidential election.

Many presidential candidates took to Twitter to advertise and give updates about their campaign. He wants four more years of Obama — but nobody else does! While this is entertaining content, this type of Tweeting was one of the problems of Twitter surrounding the election campaign. It creates a political conversation that is made up of gossip instead of actual political content.

Much of the news on social media surrounding the election were scandals about the candidates. Data tracking trending topics and themes on social media networks over the course of the campaign show that for the most part, America was least concerned with policy than with any other topic. What is said on Twitter has also often become topics on mainstream news. Not releasing this news to the press allows Trump to develop his own narrative. Therefore Trump has taken to release news himself effectively cutting out the middle-man so that information comes directly from him.

The problem being, Tweets are not fact-checked so users could be getting false and biased information. Trump has dominated the press for being extremely controversial in what he says and how he acts. Many have called him childish and disrespectful, but he still continues to receive considerable media attention. Trump thrives off of his press and gaining attention, and Twitter gives him the platform to say anything he wants which is how he has dominated the media. Another problem with Twitter and engaging in political discourse is that generally, people will follow others who share similar views to them.

They will only see and engage with people with whom they already agree. To have a healthy political discussion, one must be exposed to ranging views on a political topic. This does help to counteract only seeing certain media that agrees with your own opinion. Although Twitter has its numerous faults when it comes to creating political discussion, one of the advantages of Twitter is that it does give everyone a voice.

Everyone is given a platform to express their views and they can engage directly with politicians to discuss their comments and concerns, unlike ever before. Overall however, Twitter does make it difficult to maintain a political conversation. The short and scattered tweets make it hard to follow a narrative.

With the evidence of the election, Twitter spread more information about political scandals that it did policy. Certain political figures like Donald Trump abuse the app to center the media attention around him, saying whatever he pleases. While Twitter does democratize having a political conversation, it still has far to go to perfect it. Of late, the claim has been repeated most often by officials within the Trump administration, and incessantly by the president himself. Unlike Mr. Instead, their struggles are based on a current inability to adapt to the internet era.

For many, the moment that most signalled the start of the decline was the global financial crisis of In January of that year, Time Inc. However, the economic turmoil near the end of the decade was simply the final blow. Time was falling behind in the new digital era. This internet-caused decline was not unique amongst traditional media outlets, though.

In fact, the Pew Research Center estimates that the total industry revenue. The proliferation of the web challenges these outlets for three main reasons.

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Firstly, internet sources have become direct competitors in providing news. Today, people have access to virtually all information known to mankind. While local papers used to be the only source for any type of news, anything, apart for in some cases local stories, can be found online. As a result, subscribers who were once motivated to pay for sections covering everything from international affairs to advice columns or cars, are now unwilling to pay for this content when they can find specialized publications online, to cover everything that was found in traditional print.

Compared to print, digital advertising carries far less value, due in part to how people interact with advertisements online. Attention spans on a phone or a computer are far shorter than with a newspaper. This, naturally, makes advertisers less willing to invest heavily in marketing a product on a modern news site, as. Even media companies that have erected paywalls providing content only for paid subscribers, like newspapers still struggle to survive. Modern news companies are finding it difficult to create enough value to convince subscribers to pay for their stories. This may be more rooted in a modern perception that journalism should be free.

This set a precedent for the public, who now believe that given its importance for democratic accountability, journalism should be a right. The free-to-access structure of internet certainly also contributes to this sentiment. In general, consumers still only have the finances to pay for one or two digital subscriptions, as they would have with traditional newspapers.

Most journalism companies do not offer enough services or enough of a specialized area of interest to be valuable to consumers.

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When the information is general or easily sourced elsewhere, it is difficult to convince consumers that any company deserves their time and money. One example of this innovation is the formation of newnews sources entirely. Outlets like Buzzfeed are emerging with business models and advertising strategies that are sustainable in the modern world.

As an established giant of youth culture, they attract loyal viewers to their political content, and sustain readership of their journalism with their broad accessibility. This has made their monetize-through-advertising strategy profitable enough to be sustainable. Traditional media companies are also now imple-. The New York Times are currently creating a Netflix-like platform that offers a variety of services, beyond news reporting, that consumers appreciate greatly.

Another model proving successful is used by outlets attempting to appeal to small, niche audiences, that are willing to pay for highly specialized content. Their audience is small, but readers typically have vested interests in the content, and are therefore willing to pay. The Washington Post is attempting a very different approach, looking to appeal to as many niches as possible, but in an innovative new way. Heliograf allows The Post to report on a vast range of smaller topics and attract many niche audiences, at little additional cost. For example, Heliograf is currently writing stories on congressional elections in Iowa.

This topic is not likely to draw great readership, but because of the inexpensive reporting process, immense amounts of content can be generated, to cover any topic one may care to read. USA Today is doing something similar, but with Wibitz- its own AI video software, used to draw viewers interested in many different topics to its page. After a tumultuous decade, the story of journalism is more optimistic and renewed. This process was not quick, and involved much loss and evolution throughout, but the industry looks to finally be catching up with the digital revolution that once threatened its defeat.

The world will be better off for it. In February Uganda conducted national elections resulting in the re-appointment of Yoweri Museveni as the President of Uganda, who has held presidential power since The elections were said to be corrupt, featuring a media blackout during the election and on the day Museveni was sworn into power. The electoral campaign, however, was much more hopeful.

During this election cycle, GLiSS organized a forum for a televised presidential debate between the incumbent, Museveni, and opposition leader, Besigye. Never before had Ugandan elections utilized broadband access to televise and disseminate political leaders campaign platforms. Unfortunately, Museveni, who has now been in power for over 30 years, declined the invite to the first debate, leaving Besigye and other opponents to take the stage. An unfortunate trend in East Africa; Kenya also experienced a one man debate this past August.

While the efforts of grassroots NGOs to use ICT in disseminating political information is commendable, the trend of politicians and political institutions squandering the ICT efforts for positive political participation is growing. The Kenyan national election saw explosive violence all across the region, killing over people, and displacing over , Kenya experienced a brief pause in post electoral violence following the election, but this year, Kenya again endured some post-violence election upon the announcement of election results in August.

However, it was not comparable to the severe violence upon the election. The election featured Uhuru Kenyatta, the current President, and opposition leader Raila Odinga. The election was heavily questioned for its legitimacy, resulting in the losing ballot, Odinga, to file a report for corruption over faulty results. Interestingly, the head of the ICT department was killed a week prior to the August election occurred. ICT plays a large role in disseminating information pre-election, but in the case of Kenya, the more profound impact came post-election. The Supreme Court of Kenya recently nullified the election, stating corruption in the tallying of votes.

The court order for a re-election to be held on October 17th. While NGOs may be employing useful initiatives to drive the dissemination of political information using ICT, weak electoral institutions will consistently nullify those efforts. Unfortunately, ICT initiatives will only work as strong as the institutions they are working for. Essentially, a robust institution for which the ICT operates within will yield positive results in combatting corruption.

Grassroots successes like the WSR have proven this. The result has been the emergence of graphic and extremist content being uploaded to the website. Following a series of attacks over recent years, social media platforms including YouTube have been under increasing pressure from governments to identify and remove extremist content from their platforms.

While their efforts have been welcomed by many, others including human rights activists have raised the alarm over the loss of important documentation of the conflict. YouTube now faces a difficult task of balancing the censorship of violent and extremist content with the importance of preserving the history of the conflict. The use of social media platforms including YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter by terrorist groups pose concerns regarding radicalization and recruitment, particularly amongst young people.

Following an attack on London Bridge this past June, reports cited YouTube as a radicalization and instructional tool in the plot.

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Given the widespread use of the platform, with hours of video uploaded per minute, the platform and its parent company Google have looked for new ways to monitor content. YouTube has his-. This software targets content that is graphic or related to terrorist activities. The result was the removal of hundreds of thousands of videos from the website this past summer. While much of the content removed is undoubtedly disturbing, many of these violent videos serve as critical documentation of the conflict. Activists have spoken out regarding the need to preserve these videos as evidence for future war crimes prosecutions, pointing to instances such as the recent issuance of an arrest warrant by the International Criminal Court ICC for Mahmoud al-Werfalli, a Libyan army commander.

The warrant issued for al-Werfalli for his actions in the execution of a dozen prisoners was prompted by the surfacing of video evidence. In the more immediate term, these videos can provide an integral glimpse into the conflict for intelligence agencies. Activists have also pointed out the need to preserve. Others have decried the removal of videos of human rights abuses taken by activists who have risked their lives to document these events. It is important to issue a caution in regarding the credence of these videos.

These videos must be addressed critically, but still offer an irreplaceable record of the conflict at the ground level. One potential answer to this dilemma is the establishment of external archives. Groups such as The Syrian Archive download and upload these videos to their own private servers. The group seeks to organize material and preserve it for future use. Yet this process can be costly. YouTube itself has also proposed several new solutions.

The company has also increased resources directed at screening content. YouTube is faced with a difficult balancing act between the censorship of violent and extremist content and its role as a video archive. With increasing traffic on the platform coupled with increasing pressure on platforms to monitor content, it is a balancing act that will only grow tougher.

At first there was the mentality that these platforms were merely for kids and teens; however, nowadays it is evident that the use of social media is an integral part of just about every public relations program. With media platforms allowing you an array of possibilities ranging from improving the customer experience to keeping an eye on what your competitors are doing, having a social media presence is almost a requirement in this day and age.

This form of media has become known as social media marketing, a practice employed not only by companies but also by governments and non-profits. From Facebook news articles to trending Twitter hashtags, even Instagram has begun displaying sponsored ads. Individuals today have access to higher volumes of data via more channels than ever before, with the past two years creating more data than ever before within the entire sum of human history. However, high accessibility to data does not mean that all the information being processed is of high quality.

Articles presenting entirely false information have been appearing with no obvious way to identify them as being inaccurate. As it turns out, there were 20 top-performing false election stories from hoax sites during the critical months of the campaign which generated 8,, shares, reactions and comments on Facebook. In comparison, the 20 best-performing election stories from the 19 major news websites merely generated a total of 7,, shares, reactions and comments on the same platform.

The fact that fake election news stories somehow managed to outperform real news is a scary thought. Even if these stories do not end up deciding the election, it is evident that these fictitious tales manage to amass quite a number of views. Facebook recently claimed it has begun to rely more heavily on algorithms, rather than people, in order to specify which articles to show as trending. The reason for this is quite logical: if you were to see every post, it would be quite overwhelming.

A recent study concerning social media awareness at the University of Illinois showed that Social media includes all websites and applications that enables one to create and share content, as well as participate in social networking. With approximately 63 percent of Facebook and Twitter users claiming to use these platforms as ways to find out about news, most users fortunately claim they consider these sites to be secondary sources. Nevertheless, it is often the younger users who see these social media sites as their primary source of news.

It is crucial to ensure open discussion about the content found on these platforms, as this is the only way to establish positive, global digital citizenship, as well as overall healthy behaviour. While these statistics are enough to raise concerns, as well as a few eyebrows, remembering to keep an open mind and to be curious can go a long way.

For millennial users of social media, it is an important reminder to be aware and not become disconnected with reality due to what is seen on your newsfeed. Online voting, enabling more citizens to dictate how their society is run and by who? Or is it allowing the vote to be cast aside as just another tab open on your smartphone alongside Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, and the Weather Network? In the year , the United States became the first country to utilize high-profile internet voting.

The modern voting technique was used in Arizona, and declared a success. Resulting from this supposed success other countries began to follow suit, and implemented online voting in one form or another; Canada, Australia, Estonia, Finland, France, Norway, and Spain have all attempted to incorporate online voting into their democratic process.

Effects of using online voting are vast, and should be creating concern among not only officials in countries implementing this strategy, but also among the civilians. Along with these irrelevant votes, other voters lost their anonymity due to the issue of their voting ID numbers being incorrect and therefore traceable by government officials. These outcomes, though they can be stated simply and succinctly, have large implications and should be a cause for immense consideration regarding the phenomenon of online voting.

The concerns of online voting extent beyond technical errors and contemporary technology. For example, the threat of external influence of online voting is one threat that the government is utterly unfit to monitor or control. There is no means in telling if an individual was swayed or pressured to vote for a particular outcome during the online voting process. The San Francisco Department of Elections published an extensive article to ensure the proper conduct was followed by polling stations on election day. The goal of the law is to make sure that as the voter goes to cast their ballot on a specific day, at their designated polling station, they are not overcome by electioneers, signs, or any other activity that will unduly influence the vote that they cast.

It also goes to ensure the safety of the voter, on the chance that another citizen wishes to influence how they vote directly. The law attempts to provide complete freedom from biased influence, intimidation, or coercion. Cameras or video equipment are also prohibited from interfering with the voting process, and must keep a precise distance from. With these rules and regulations determining how a polling station is to be run, to ensure freedom and the right to cast a ballot anonymously, how does any political institution or citizen believe that online voting could ever be an equal alternative?

Influences such as other members of the household, either through recommendation by blunt intimidation, can change the outcome of many votes, eliminating a long tradition and value of the freedom to vote in democratic societies. Issues such as hackers being able to acquire information about who voted for who, or even changing the vote that was cast is a matter which may be able to be detected, but not prevented. Does having the ability to vote early, on multiple days, from anywhere, warrant the implantation of online voting into the democratic process? Weighing the benefits and trepidations that arise when considering this form of balloting, the unanimous conclusion will be that it is an absurd idea.

The importance of the vote must be highly valued and protected; this cannot be maintained if online voting is allowed to prevail as a common practice. At present, in many of these countries, they constitute a sizable minority, or even a majority, of the overall population. Dramatic demographic shifts such as this cannot, of course, be boiled down to only one cause. Many explanations have been offered for the rise of irreligion in the West.

Some attribute the shift to the long-term amelioration of living standards; as people experience greater stability and financial security, it is argued, there is less need for them to turn to the spiritual realm for comfort and guidance. Others suggest that, especially in the United States, the reluctance of many individuals to identify with a specific organized religion is partly due to a broader trend of.

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One of the more intriguing theories links increasing secularization to the technological developments of the Digital Age. Much as the invention of the printing press facilitated the large-scale dissemination of information that in turn fostered the Reformation, the immense volume of current knowledge proliferated through new, online communication channels is having a considerable impact on the way people today think about religion.

This is particularly true with respect to organized religions and the long-established power structures within them. This exposes them to new ideas and interpretations that may run contrary to what they learned from faith leaders growing up. Although they may continue to believe in some teachings, these people no longer find it necessary to participate in the formal elements of worship or to affiliate themselves with one denomination.

Yet beyond simply revising their religious beliefs, many people have been led to renounce their faith altogether. The wealth of information available online can be particularly enlightening for individuals who grew up in environments where legitimate scientific theories were dismissed, in favour of contrived, nonsensical explanations to accommodate for beliefs on topics like the origin of the universe and human life. For these people, websites such as YouTube and Wikipedia that provide this information in detailed, yet easyto-digest formats are especially useful in this regard.

The opportunity they pose to explore the scientific findings on these matters can be enough to turn them away from religion completely. The internet also serves as a vehicle for non-believers to network, allowing them to organize and proselytize more effectively. This is accomplished through discussion boards, podcasts, and conferences such as those hosted by the Center for Inquiry, a US-based secularist think-tank.

For those living in areas where irreligion is heavily stigmatized, this can be a valuable arena in which to become more comfortable with themselves and to share their convictions more openly. The ramifications of the continuing shift away from religion will be enormous, altering everything from the makeup of political landscapes to the role of women in society to the future of philosophy and ethics. It is no. As opposition to some of the most contentious contemporary social issues — such as abortion, euthanasia, embryonic stem-cell research, and LGBT rights — is often founded on religious grounds, supporters of these causes can be expected to gain greater public favour going forward.

Still, earning support from the majority of a given population is not the same as reaching public consensus; as such, the culture wars waged by proponents of traditional values systems and the right-wing political movements fuelled in part by their discontent should not be expected to dissipate any time soon.

They may even become more reactionary as they decline in influence, sparking incidents such as the case of a Kentucky county clerk who was jailed — and subsequently held up by supporters nationwide as a martyr — for refusing to grant marriage licenses to same-sex couples. Much has been said about how modern technology has revolutionized the ways in which humans interact with each other and with the surrounding world. However, comparatively less attention has been given to the impact it has had on the way people regard the supernatural. While religion will continue to have a place in Western culture for some time to come, it is set for an increasingly diminished role in the public sphere, due in no small part to changes brought upon by the Digital Age.

For centuries, the West has encountered a series of revolutionary religious movements, ranging from the Reformation to the Great Awakenings, that have brought about long-lasting divisions and fundamental social change. Far from being one, single intellectual movement, driven by ideas that will eventually wane in popularity, this drift towards a new era of irreligion represents a fundamental shift in the very tenets of Western thought. Unlike its competitors, China thrived on exporting lower quality variations of products that allowed companies to sacrifice quality for manufacturing costs.

Such problems call for a new industrial structure - one that considers environmental impact and shifts away from quantitative goals for production. Instead, investments must also be carefully allocated by field and sector depending on the specialization capacity in the country in terms of efficiency and economic, social, and technological competitiveness. It is a misconception that the sharing of explicit im- 1 ages is a new occurrence brought on by the internet; nude bodies and sexual acts have been depicted in art pieces for thousands of years.

Furthermore, in studies that feature the usage of pornography in everyday life, men who watched violent porn were more likely to admit that they would rape wom- en if they could ensure they would get away with it. As of January , it had Reapers and Sowers: Winners and Losers of Technological Innovation in Agriculture By: Rebecca Frost The Green Revolution, the period of rapid advancement in fertilization, irrigation, and pest control technology that revolutionized the global agricultural system in the mid 20th century, was heralded as a force that would lift masses out of poverty and allow newly decolonized countries to build a strong economic backbone.

Yields from GM cotton seeds tend to gener- ate gains for large-scale farms that operate with irrigation pumps. While the Green Revolution enabled per-capita maize consumption to remain constant despite population growth, large and medium-scale farmers were mostly responsible for the growth, while small farms experienced their share of output decline.

Farmers usually have little choice other than to enter into these contracts, as these large firms own the processing facilities farmers need access to in order to sell their products. Indeed, many major financial institutions are experimenting with blockchain for internal transfer of information. In doing so, President Obama was able to cultivate an ecosystem in which the use of machine learning and augmented reality have been used to help the healthcare system flourish.

Another technology that has gained significant traction in healthcare innovation is augmented reality. The sheer size of the region, and potential for covert operations aided by the sparsity of population throughout, fuelled a fear of Soviet infiltration, and con- certed efforts to increase the presence of Canadian military institutions. Particularly for the large Inuit and First Nations populations most concentrated in Nunavut and Northwest Territories, respectively , the lack of autonomy in decision-making is a tremendous issue.

Nuclear North Korea By: Stephanie Repic The role of technology in our world has increased unbelievably in the last 50 years — not only in individual social networks with the creation of smart phones and social media but with world politics and how warfare is carried out. Each time North Korea is slapped on the hand by the UN they have returned with bigger tests and bigger missiles.

But, just like the frontiers of old, it is by no means safe. This is far from an isolated incident — the Wannacry ransomware attacks struck computers in every corner of the world, from governments and corporations to ordinary individuals, remotely locking them down and demanding money. As such, efforts being concentrated to mend these gaps focus on national education systems and factors that hinder participation and access to quality education.

These local apps provide refugees with information such as border crossings, transport departures, residency regulations, job openings in host coun- tries, and learning host languages.